IV.

You Never Knew You Needed To Know:

machinate
Engage in plots and intrigues; scheme.

logomachy
An argument about words.

cloy
Disgust or sicken (someone) with an excess of sweetness, richness, or sentiment.

ampersand
& ; From mid 19th cent.: alteration of ‘and per se and’ – ‘ & by itself is and,’ chanted as an aid to learning the sign. Whatever that means.

hapax legomena
A word/term of which only one instance of use is recorded. EVER.

grotesque
From Italian grottesca, from opera/pittura grottesca ‘work or painting resembling that found in a grotto’.

Ptolemy
Greek astronomer and geographer of the 2nd century, whose Geography was a standard work for centuries despite its inaccuracies.

Pliny the Elder
(23–79) Roman scholar, writer of “Natural History” a vast encyclopedia of the natural and human worlds.

furor
A wave of enthusiastic admiration; a craze.

apotheosis
The highest point in the development of something; culmination or climax. / The elevation of someone to divine status; deification.

atavistic
Relating to or characterized by reversion to something ancient or ancestral.

grandiloquent
Pompous or extravagant in language, style, or manner.

obdurate
Stubbornly refusing to change one’s opinion or course of action.

benison
A blessing.

alembic
A distilling apparatus consisting of a rounded, necked flask and a cap with a long beak for condensing and conveying the products to a receiver.

argonaut
A small floating octopus, the female of which has webbed arms like sails. / The group of heroes who accompanied Jason on board the ship Argo in the quest for the Golden Fleece.

visceral
Of or relating to the internal organs in the main cavities of the body.

analogue
A person or thing seen as comparable to another.

res gestae
The events, circumstances, remarks, etc., that relate to a particular case.

Pliny the Younger
(c.61– c.112) Roman writer, noted for his books of letters that deal with both public and private affairs.

sophisticated
(From medieval Latin sophisticatus, ‘tampered with’.)

clandestine
Kept secret or done secretively, esp. because illicit.

demarcate (demarkate)
Set the boundaries or limits of.

debauch
Destroy or debase the moral purity of; corrupt.

profligate
A licentious, dissolute person.

spurious
Not being what it purports to be./ (Of a line of reasoning) apparently but not actually valid.

a fortiori
Used to express a conclusion for which there is stronger evidence than for a previously accepted one.

hypnagogic
Of or relating to the state immediately before falling asleep.

eros
Sexual love or desire. In Freudian theory: the life instinct. Often contrasted with Thanatos. In Jungian psychology: the principle of personal relatedness in human activities, associated with the anima. Often contrasted with Logos .

thanatos
Greek, “death”. In Freudian theory: the death instinct. Often contrasted with Eros.

selvage
An edge produced on woven fabric during manufacture that prevents it from unraveling.

prevenient
Preceding in time or order.

magic
From Greek magikē ‘(art of) a magus’ : magi were regarded as magicians.

arbiter
A person whose views or actions have great influence over trends in social behavior.

obfuscate
Render obscure, unclear, or unintelligible. Bewilder.

sacrosanct
(From Latin sacro ‘by a sacred rite’ + sanctus ‘holy.’)

profane
Secular rather than religious. (From Latin profanus ‘outside the temple’.)

schadenfreude
Pleasure derived by someone from another person’s misfortune.

Bobby Fischer
U.S. chess player, defeated Boris Spassky in 1972 to become the world champion, until 1975.

phrenology
The detailed study of the shape and size of the cranium as a supposed indication of character and mental abilities. From Greek phren- ‘mind’.

legislative
Of or relating to laws or the making of them.

volatile
Easily evaporated at normal temperatures; Liable to change rapidly and unpredictably, esp. for the worse.

corollary
A proposition that follows from (and is often appended to) one already proved. / A direct or natural consequence or result.

rictus
A fixed grimace or grin.

syntax
The arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language. From Greek suntaxis, from sun- ‘together’ + tassein ‘arrange.’

lien
A right to keep possession of property belonging to another person until a debt owed by that person is discharged.

Opus Dei
A Roman Catholic organization of laymen and priests founded in Spain in 1928 with the aim of reestablishing Christian ideals in society.

quorum
The minimum number of members of an assembly or society that must be present at any of its meetings to make the proceedings of that meeting valid.

plenum
An assembly of all the members of a group or committee; A space completely filled with matter, or the whole of space so regarded.

diarist
A person who writes a diary.

beatification
Declaration by the pope that a dead person is in a state of bliss, constituting a step toward canonization and permitting public veneration.

protean
Tending or able to change frequently or easily; versatile.

oocyte
A cell in an ovary that may undergo meiotic division to form an ovum.

oocyst
A cyst containing a zygote formed by a parasitic protozoan such as the malaria parasite.

os
An opening or entrance to a passage, esp. one at either end of the cervix of the uterus. (From Latin os ‘mouth.’)

metastasis
The development of secondary malignant growths at a distance from a primary site of cancer. From Greek, literally ‘removal or change’.

sublimate
Divert or modify (an instinctual impulse) into a culturally higher or socially more acceptable activity

autarky
Economic independence or self-sufficiency.

grieve
Feel grief for or because of. / Cause great distress to (someone).

salient
Most noticeable or important; (of an angle) Pointing outward. The opposite of reentrant; Standing on its hind legs with the forepaws raised, as if leaping.

phenomenon
(n, singular) A fact or situation that is observed to exist or happen, esp. one whose cause or explanation is in question. / The object of a person’s perception; what the senses or the mind notice.

hendiadys
The expression of a single idea by two words connected with “and,” e.g., nice and warm, when one could be used to modify the other, as in nicely warm.

coppice
Cut back (a tree or shrub) to ground level periodically to stimulate growth.

indite
Write; compose.

thalweg
A line connecting the lowest points of successive cross-sections along the course of a valley or river.

hydromel
A drink similar to mead, made with fermented honey and water.

female
(From Old French femelle, from Latin femella, diminutive of femina ‘a woman.’ The change in the ending was due to association with male , but the words male and female are not otherwise linked etymologically.)

proprioceptive
Relating to stimuli that are produced and perceived within an organism, esp. those connected with the position and movement of the body. Compare with exteroceptive and interoceptive .

anachronism
Thing belonging or appropriate to a period other than that in which it exists, esp. a thing that is conspicuously old-fashioned.

gynandrous
Hermaphrodite.

providence
The protective care of God or of nature as a spiritual power.

Stoicism
The teachings of a school of ancient Greece that virtue is based on knowledge, and that the wise live in harmony with the divine Reason (Fate) that governs nature, and are indifferent to the vicissitudes of fortune and to pleasure and pain.

[the] onus [is on…]
Used to refer to something that is one’s duty or responsibility.

politics
(primary definition) The activities associated with the governance of a country or other area, esp. the debate or conflict among individuals or parties having or hoping to achieve power.

zeitgeist
The defining spirit or mood of a particular period of history as shown by the ideas and beliefs of the time.

synecdoche
Figure of speech in which a part is made to represent the whole or vice versa.

fo’c’s’le
The forward part of a ship below the deck, traditionally used as the crew’s living quarters.

blagueur
A person who talks nonsense.

counter
The white space enclosed by a letter such as O or c. / The back part of a shoe or boot, enclosing the heel.

aglet
A metal or plastic tube fixed tightly around each end of a shoelace.

vamp
To attach a new upper to (a boot or shoe); To repair or improve something.

welt
A ribbed, reinforced, or decorative border of a shoe, garment or pocket.

amaranthine
Esp. of a lover one cannot forget. From Greek amarantos ‘everlasting,’ from a- ‘not’ + marainein ‘wither.’

tondo
A circular painting or relief.

Odin/Woden/Wotan
(Scandinavian) The supreme god and creator, god of victory and the dead. Wednesday is named after him.

ace
(From Latin as ‘unity, a unit.’)

dualism
The division of something conceptually into two opposed or contrasted aspects, or the state of being so divide.

pluralism
A theory or system that recognizes more than one ultimate principle.

culture
(From medieval Latin culturare, based on Latin colere, ‘tend, cultivate’.)

cult
(From Latin cultus ‘worship’, from cult- ‘inhabited, cultivated, worshiped’, from the verb colere.)

marketecture
The view of architecture as a product.

syncopation
Displace the beats or accents in a rhythm; Shorten a word by dropping sounds in the middle.

religion
(From Old French or Latin, ‘obligation, bond, reverence.’)

natalism
“Having more children is desirable for good of the political community.”

emancipate
Set free, esp. from legal, social, or political restrictions.

agrarian
Of or relating to cultivated land or the cultivation of land.

bigot
Origin: late 16th cent. (denoting a superstitious religious hypocrite).

normal
(From Latin norma ‘precept, rule, carpenter’s square.’)

deism
Belief in the existence of a supreme being, specifically of a creator who does not intervene in the universe. Compare with theism.

diaphanous
Light, delicate, and translucent.

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